Peter Lawler's America.
Aug 26, 2002, Vol. 7, No. 47 • By PETER J. HANSEN
Aliens in America
THE BOOK TITLE "Aliens in America" derives from a remark that Walker Percy made about Carl Sagan. Percy wondered why Sagan was so eager to find aliens on other planets when our own planet is peopled by aliens stranger than any extraterrestrials we might find. Percy was alluding to St. Augustine's statement that we humans are all "pilgrims or aliens in this world," as political theorist Peter Lawler puts it, "because our true home is somewhere else."
Informed by this articulation of the human situation, Lawler examines America. He ranges wide, looking at left and right, theory and practice, history and nature, trendy postmodern thinkers and firmly conservative ones.
The best chapter in the book is "Religion and the American Idea of Liberty." Lawler's description of those who support religious belief primarily for political ends amounts to a powerful critique without any need for overt attack. William Galston, for example, "admits that the main cause of the growth of divorce . . . is that choice and contract have largely replaced the 'sacramental' understanding of marriage." The sacramental understanding of marriage, of course, derives from religious faith. Marriage largely ceases to function when viewed as merely beneficial or functional.
Those who cherish the liberal principles articulated in the Declaration of Independence may welcome the support that religion gives liberal democracy, but they have no remedy to offer as liberal principles gradually weaken religion and other non-liberal sources of obligation and authority. "Functional traditionalists cannot even formulate a rhetoric for the restoration or the recovery of what they really regard as a necessary illusion." Whether or not they fully admit it to themselves, such thinkers believe "that the definition of man as the being with rights is both empirically correct and socially destructive."
So neoconservatives and neoliberals occupy a precarious position, less robust and defensible than that of those Lawler calls "the orthodox." He prefers the term "orthodox" to "traditional" because "most such believers have chosen or converted to a way of life usually not shared with equivalent intensity by their fathers." Since the orthodox are rarely described or represented in national political magazines, Lawler's description is worth quoting:
"Orthodox believers are not reliable political conservatives. They have little use for either country-club Republicans or therapeutic Democrats, and especially today they often tend to put little hope in political reform. They sometimes can ally with libertarians against big government, since their experience has typically been that wherever government goes, God and moral responsibility disappear. And they see . . . no way to reform our public institutions, particularly our schools. Their political aim is to protect the freedom of churches and parents to educate children and exercise authority. But they are further than anyone from the nerve of libertarian morality. . . . They regard the progressive view that life gets more moral and easier as it gets more rights-oriented and individualistic as a lie."
This is a striking portrait; but one might wonder how many people it really resembles. While most home-schooling Christian families are firmly pro-life, their thoughts on rights and individualism seem less clear and defiant than Lawler indicates. The very language in which they defend their pro-life position is often grounded in rights, rather than an explicitly religious understanding. Nonetheless, the mere act of home-schooling is evidently a major form of opting out of the mainstream, and Lawler is surely right that "the real counterculture in America is revealed religion."
At the other end of the spectrum are the liberals. After discussing Alan Ehrenhalt's excellent portrait of communal authority in Chicago neighborhoods in the 1950s, Lawler notes that such authority is usually described by "the malcontent who can remember nothing good about, say, nun-run parochial schools. But everyone knows that those schools prepared most children for life as parents, citizens, and parishioners (and the liberal critics for their lives as writers) far better than most schools do now."
Lawler notes that "the being with rights characteristically does not acknowledge his debts to others and to communities." To view oneself as a being with rights (rather than duties or constitutive membership in some larger group) invites one to forget one's dependence on other people and on God.