The Oxford Man
Maurice Bowra, tutor to the stars.
Sep 14, 2009, Vol. 14, No. 48 • By JOSEPH EPSTEIN
As an Oxford don, Bowra thought himself in the tradition of Gilbert Murray: someone who did intensive scholarship yet wrote for intelligent general readers, keeping the tradition of Greek culture alive while disseminating it as widely as possible. He translated Pindar, wrote an important book on Homer, and, though his work in Greek scholarship came to be thought old-fashioned, he was not in the least reluctant to continue working in this vein throughout his life: first, because he believed the ancient Greeks still supplied the best model available of the good life, and second, as Leslie Mitchell writes, because "his Greek studies were so intimately entwined in aspects of his personality that they could not be easily readjusted."
If Bowra may be said to have been a proselytizer, it was on behalf of the Greek ideal and of the centrality in life, to the cultivated classes, of the elevation that great poetry made to the enhancement of life. When young, Bowra wished to write serious poetry himself, but recognized it wasn't in him to do so. His taste in contemporary poetry was less than infallible; among the poets he admired and promoted were Yeats and Edith Sitwell, Dylan Thomas and Sidney Keyes. He wrote well on Dante, Milton, Pushkin, and others, and thought himself a servant to poetry. But most assuredly, to no one or nothing else.
Cultivating the young was, for Bowra, both a way of exerting his influence and a way of alleviating his loneliness. Apart from mornings working at his desk, he seems seldom to have been alone. Once, on a rare occasion when he went off on holiday by himself, he reported: "I found myself--a horrible discovery. I have been trying ever since to lose myself." He was a thoroughly social being, lonely as only a deeply gregarious bachelor can be, a man, by nature, of the group, the clique, the coterie. He held, as his friend the medieval
The roster of Bowristas, as Bowra's young acolytes were known, is impressive, and includes: C. Day-Lewis, Kenneth Clark, A. J. Ayer, John Betjeman, Noel Annan, Stuart Hampshire, Isaiah Berlin, Anthony Powell, Henry Yorke (the novelist Henry Green), Cyril Connolly, John Sparrow, and Hugh Gaitskell, who disappointed Bowra by wasting his life in politics and becoming leader of the British Labour party. To be a Bowrista was to be taken up as a friend to Bowra, who always remained first among equals.
The reward was, from most accounts, to feel a sense of liberation. Under his spell, life seemed filled with promise, charm, comedy. Bowra taught the chosen undergraduates, as Mitchell puts it, "that life could be about what was possible, rather than what was allowed." Yet if one lingered too long under Bowra's influence, the result could be an uncomfortable domination. "I think," Anthony Powell wrote, "for young men who wanted to develop along lines of their own--it was best to know Bowra, then get away; if necessary return to him in due course to appreciate the many things he had to offer."
To be among the chosen was to be invited to attend Bowra's dinners, at which splendid food accompanied radiant talk, much of it expressed in Bowra's own pointed language of derogation. Up for slaying were smugness and pomposity; so too the confidence of scientists in their superiority and the self-importance of politicians, whose posturings Bowra enjoyed seeing crushed by scandal.
Among the Bowristas, one could be cruel only if also witty. Of an Oxford character known for his false geniality, Bowra remarked that at their last meeting the man gave him "the warm shoulder." Of a mediocre figure rising in the world, he remarked: "You cannot keep a second-rate man down." He once allowed that the suicide rate of undergraduates was "higher than it ought to be." The term homintern, denoting the assumed cabal of homosexuals, a play on the Communist Third International, was his invention. "You don't get the best value out of your selfishness," he once remarked, "if you're selfish all the time." Bowra could in fact be extraordinarily generous to friends.
The devastating yet understated put-down has long been a specialty of the house at Oxford and at Cambridge. If not started by Maurice Bowra, it was given a great boost by him. Although I attended neither school, I experienced it in ample measure through the conversation of my friend Edward Shils, who was a fellow of King's College and Peterhouse at Cambridge and was a talker, I believe, the equal of Bowra in his powers of subtle derogation. Of Isaiah Berlin, for example, Edward would say, "He is a charming man and has doubtless given great pleasure to his friends." Uncoded, this meant that Berlin's writing was shallow and he was utterly without intellectual courage. (Edward also told me that behind Berlin's
When I introduced Edward to the bounderish English journalist Henry Fairlie, he said: "Mr. Fairlie, you wrote some brilliant things in the 1950s [the year was then 1978], but now I understand you have become a socialist. Justify yourself, please." Fairlie answered that he had been turned by hearing Michael Harrington lecture in Chicago,
To be thought a disappointment to Bowra was, among the Bowristas, a serious blow. "I have known what it is to be hated by Maurice," wrote Cyril Connolly, "and I have spent several years in the wilderness; it was a devastating experience. One would wake up in the middle of the night and seem to hear that inexorable luncheon-party voice roar over one like a bulldozer." Bowra once introduced Connolly, whose lassitude was famous, by announcing, "Coming man." Pause. "Hasn't come yet."
John Sparrow, warden of All Souls and, like Connolly, another well-known under-producer, was another Bowrista who disappointed Bowra. When Sparrow published his once-famous essay on what Lady Chatterly and the gamekeeper were really doing in the sack, Bowra wrote to him:
Well done. It is good to see the old cause of dirt so well defended, and I admire you very much for your skillful argument and even more having been able to read and remember the book, which must have been a
Sparrow, with whom I had spent some time, began a dinner we had together by asking me whether it was true that Americans believed that all men were created equal. I averred that one of our key documents did so state. "Well," he said, "I suppose they had better believe it, for there's no actual evidence for it." On another occasion, after a dinner in his honor at the University of Chicago, Edward Shils and I repaired to Sparrow's room at the Quadrangle Club, where he, in dinner clothes, clutching a bouquet of roses, perhaps one-and-a-half-to-two-sheets to the wind, began to attack dogs. He attacked them for their subservience, for their sucking-up propensities, for their uncritical adoration of their masters; so much less interesting were they than cats.
"Mr. Sparrow," I said to him, "I have to confess to you that I own a dog. He is a small dog, to be sure, but I love him."
"I see," he replied. "Very well, then, keep him. But when he dies, pray do not replace him."
Englishmen, as has been said, are divisible into two groups: boys and old boys.
Slight though Bowra's renown is today, it lives on, or so many people believe, in his being the model for Mr. Samgrass, the snobbish Oxford don who sucks up to the Marchmains in Evelyn Waugh's Brideshead Revisited. Bowra spotted this, and pretended to enjoy it. Waugh was a borderline Bowrista, but relations between the two powerful personalities were never easy. Bowra thought that Waugh's best writing was inspired by hatred, and when Bowra was knighted, Waugh, no slouch at derogation himself, wrote to Nancy Mitford: "It is really very odd as he had done nothing to deserve it except be head of the worst college at Oxford and publish a few books no one has ever read."
Leslie Mitchell finds the character of Mr. Samgrass, however interesting in himself, well off the mark of its life model. He notes that Bowra's snobbery was not social but entirely intellectual: "He preferred clever people to stupid people. The only entry qualification into his court was intelligence." One is reminded here of Bowra's own hierarchical order for admitting undergraduates to Wadham: "Clever boys, interesting boys, pretty boys--no shits."
On the snobbery front, Bowra did not find Bloomsbury at all appealing, and of Virginia Woolf remarked that "I find her a bore, dislike her imagery, suspect her psychology." As for Bloomsbury generally, he found it pretentious in the extreme, "with its ridiculous little philosophy about beautiful states of mind." The Garsington of Lady Ottoline Morrell, whom he described as "a baroque flamingo," was more to his liking. He was also a regular guest at Margot Asquith's literary salon, where a combination of political and literary figures was on offer, and which gave him a cachet, upon his return to Oxford, as a man of the great world outside the university.
No doubt Bowra would have preferred to be more worldly still, but, with the outbreak of World War II, no one offered him interesting work--nothing diplomatic in America, nothing at Bletchley breaking codes, nothing doing spy work. He had to settle for being a member of the Home Guard. He felt wounded and left behind. Only later were his spirits revived, when he was made vice chancellor of Oxford and, later, president of the British Academy. He turned out to be an effective if always impatient administrator, setting records for the briefness of his meetings.
"Bowra had," Mitchell writes, "the confidence of a man who had belief." Belief, firmly held, gives one a point of view, and combined with the right temperament, a sense of humor. Bowra believed that the university was a sacrosanct institution, with barbarians always hovering just outside the gates. In the matter of honorary degrees, he felt, as Mitchell writes, that "whom the University chose to honor was a public statement of its own purpose." (Northwestern University, where I taught for many years, has recently awarded honorary degrees to Robert Redford, Julia Louis-Dreyfus, and Studs Terkel, which is certainly a fine statement of its own purpose.) As for appointments, he deemed it important that people who valued what he, Bowra, did be in place to carry through those things that most deserved to live on.
What Maurice Bowra valued was literary culture, anchored in ancient Greece. The literary point of view was what he admired above all; the quality of any nation, he felt, was to be found in the quality of its literature. He was properly suspicious of social science, and less than enthusiastic about science itself. No Bowristas were scientists. Organized religion, always a target for his humor, he called "marvelous rot," but claimed that without it "the boys will believe, alas, in science, and think it will cure all their ills, poor poops."
A one-culture man, he said, "I wish I knew why we had to keep up with technological developments, and suspect that much of it is bogus." Loathing bureaucracy, he feared the interference of government in university affairs. And while himself democratic in spirit, and welcoming to the grammar school boys who now had a chance at an Oxbridge education, he didn't believe that democracy otherwise had anything to do with education.
From all this one can see that Maurice Bowra was doomed to becoming a back number in his lifetime. When he wrote his memoirs, called Memories, he ended them in 1939. He did so because he understood that World War II and its aftermath would soon put paid to the Oxford he loved, and marked "the end of an era for the world and for me." He claimed not to understand the students of the 1960s, and found the entire time, in Leslie Mitchell's words, "often baffling and upsetting." Television, on which he refused to appear, appalled him: "All television corrupts," he said, "and absolute television corrupts absolutely." Evelyn Waugh knew the game was up for Bowra when he discovered that students at Wadham began referring to their warden as "Old Tragic."
Bowra was permitted to serve two years past the normal mandatory retirement age as warden of Wadham, and after his retirement was given rooms in the college. He was succeeded in the wardenship by a Bowrista, the philosopher Stuart Hampshire, which must have eased the blow of retirement somewhat.
Santayana says that, as we approach death, the world itself begins to look dark to us because we cannot imagine it being much good without us in it. Some of this darkness crept into Bowra's
"I am going deaf and blind, and losing my memory," he wrote to Noel Annan. "It is time I became a bishop." He began to give out his address as Reduced Circumstances, Oxford. He died, of a heart attack, as he had hoped, in 1971.
Anyone of the least imagination who has visited Oxford, but never went there when young, cannot but feel a strong yearning for a world one has never known. But it is not contemporary Oxford for which one yearns, but the Oxford of the years between the wars and shortly thereafter. This was the Oxford of high intellectual style and gaiety, of dash and slashing wit, of oddballs and eccentrics, of brilliance and the love of serious learning--the Oxford, in short, of Maurice Bowra.
Joseph Epstein, a contributing editor to THE WEEKLY STANDARD, is the author of the forthcoming The Love Song of A. Jerome Minkoff and Other Stories.