A Desire Named Streetcar
Desperate to get citizens to move to the city and ride mass transportation, local governments embrace "traffic calming."
12:00 AM, Jun 23, 2006 • By RACHEL DICARLO
Drive down a main thoroughfare in the busy Northern Virginia suburbs of Arlington and Alexandria and you'll find any combination of traffic-calming devices, which federal tax dollars helped fund. In 2005 alone the federal government gave $8 million to Northern Virginia's Loudon County for its traffic-calming programs.
IN MOST PLACES, citizens don't get to vote on whether or not they want traffic calming. Planners simply decide which devices they want and have them installed. (There have been a few instances in which citizens were successful in getting anti-traffic-calming measures included on local ballots. In Auburn, California, residents voted to make the installation of speed bumps illegal, but in Boulder, Colorado, citizens voted down a measure to remove speed bumps after city officials claimed it would cost $1 million.)
Suburban neighborhoods--if they get to vote at all--often use what Heritage Foundation transportation scholar Ronald Utt calls " a sloppy democratic process" to decide on traffic calming. A petition might be sent around or the local civic association might hold a debate.
In addition the costs, irritation, and anti-democratic nature of traffic calming, it creates real problems for communities. At least one traffic-calming practice--converting one-way streets to two-way streets--leads to an increase in car accidents. Transportation planner Michael Cunneen has found that when cities change some streets to two-way from one-way, accidents increase by an average of 30 to 40 percent. Likewise, his study showed, when cities turn two-way streets to one-way, accidents decline by 30 to 40 percent.
In Denver, according to a report by Cunneen and O'Toole for the Independence Institute, planners have measured the number of accidents before and after the conversion of downtown streets from one-way to two-way, and found a 37 percent increase in accidents. When Indianapolis planners changed a major route from a one- to two-way operation, accidents went up by 33 percent. Pedestrians and cyclists also face increased risks on two-way streets.
Emergency vehicle workers, in particular, tend to disapprove of traffic calming. Besides the minutes spent cutting through traffic jams, each speed bump an ambulance or fire truck has to cross creates an additional 10 seconds of delay.
Ronald Bowman, a scientist in Boulder, Colorado, calculates that traffic-calming devices in his city--especially speed bumps and traffic circles--have a 10-year risk ratio of 85-1 for every minute emergency vehicles lose to traffic calming. That means that over a 10-year period there would be a probability of 85 additional deaths from a one-minute increase in emergency response time.
Les Bunte, a former assistant fire chief in Austin, Texas, conducted a similar study, which predicted that victims of cardiac arrest in Austin had an increased risk factor of 35-1 for every 30 seconds of delay.
"It has been statistically shown that even minor delays to emergency response caused by delay-inducing traffic-calming devices create far more risk to a community than vehicles--speeding or not," says activist Kathleen Calongne, who runs a traffic-calming education website.
ANOTHER PROBLEM WITH TRAFFIC CALMING--one that government planners might be expected to care about--is pollution. "Cars pollute least going at steady speeds of 45 to 55 mph. They pollute most when accelerating and at slower speeds. So by slowing traffic down and forcing repeated slowdowns and accelerations, traffic calming makes pollution worse," O'Toole says. "If traffic calming convinced people not to drive, that might make up for it, but I have seen no evidence that it does." By this standard, the installation of traffic-calming devices might even be a violation of the Clean Air Act, which requires municipalities to do what they can to reduce toxic emissions.
There's also the matter of extra fuel consumption. Each year, the time spent idling in traffic costs Americans $63.1 billion a year and 2.3 billion gallons of wasted
As always with transportation and urban topics, hostility to roads and cars comes chiefly from central planners whose lifestyles differ greatly from the drivers they try to punish. Major cities such as Los Angeles, New York, and Washington, can, to some extent, get away with their onerous traffic policies because their major industries can't realistically relocate. What about other areas?
There is no way to solve all of America's traffic problems. But elected officials should take seriously their obligation to use transportation tax dollars to improve, not hinder, mobility for taxpayers.
Rachel DiCarlo is a Phillips Foundation fellow.