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Turkish Turmoil: Obstruction in Libya, Interference in Syria, Discrimination at Home

3:32 PM, Apr 12, 2011 • By STEPHEN SCHWARTZ
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Turkey is a member of NATO, and as such might have been expected to participate fully in the military campaign to curb Libyan dictator Muammar Qaddafi’s brutal repression of his rebellious subjects. But from the beginning of international talks on Libya, the “soft-Islamist” Ankara government of Recep Tayyip Erdogan and the Justice and Development  party (AKP) has followed an ambivalent course. Rather than joining in the anti-Qaddafi effort, Erdogan has offered a series of unhelpful “alternatives” to it.

Turkish prime minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan.

Turkish prime minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan.

Leading Turkish journalist Semih Idiz noted on April 11, in the English online edition of the Istanbul daily Hurriyet, that Erdogan must have been surprised when Libyans in Benghazi, the rebel center, denounced him and Turkey in loud demonstrations last week. According to the Turkish commentator, liberated Libyans blame Erdogan and Turkey for “indirectly supporting the Qaddafi regime and prolonging its life.” Erdogan has opposed arming the Libyan resistance, adding his voice to those claiming the rebels’ ideology is suspect. Earlier, Idiz observed that the marchers in Benghazi carried French flags and banners praising Nicolas Sarkozy. But video from Euronews showed demonstrators with placards thanking the United States and the U.K., as well, for action against Qaddafi.

At the commencement of the crisis, Erdogan raged at the mere suggestion of NATO involvement in Libya, asking, “What business does NATO have in Libya anyway?” He then took umbrage when Turkey was left off the invitation list for the March 19 summit on Libya called by the French (who also oppose Turkish entry into the European Union). Hurriyet’s Idiz, in a March 24 column, warned that the more Turkey avoided clear and unambiguous integration with NATO on Libya, “the more Qaddafi will be encouraged in resisting the operation against him.”

Turkish officials have rushed to affirm their adherence to NATO policy. Foreign ministry representative Selcuk Unal declared, as reported Monday by Idiz, “The commander of NATO determines how to run the operation. As every NATO member knows, when an operation is started, command is given entirely to the NATO commander.” This posture came after Turkey threatened to exercise its veto over NATO remedies against Qaddafi if leadership was taken by the French.

Turkey is now participating in enforcement of the “no-fly” zone in Libya. But Erdogan’s government followed up on its former intrigues by proposing a “road map” to peace in Libya that would include a withdrawal of Qaddafi’s forces from their present positions, establishment of humanitarian corridors, and a transition to democracy. Humanitarian assistance from Turkey, however, comes with suspicious associations. While Erdogan suggested that sending arms to Libyan anti-Qaddafi fighters could put weapons in risky hands, an official Turkish aid convoy to Benghazi was paid for by the Turkish authorities, but staffed and provisioned by the Turkish Red Crescent (the equivalent of the Red Cross in Muslim countries), and a familiar player, the I.H.H. (Foundation for Human Rights and Freedoms), which led the Turkish Islamist assault on the Israeli naval embargo at Gaza last year. A top I.H.H. official in Turkey, Murat Bayraktar, claimed the organization was the first on the ground distributing aid in Benghazi, on February 22, five days after the Libyan insurrection began.

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