You may have read about the rise in the number of Americans who claim no religious affiliation, making you think that we are on our way to becoming as irreligious as Europe. You may have read how religion is growing fast in Latin America, Asia, and Africa, leaving you to think religion is on the wane in the United States. Or you may have read about the popularity of the late Christopher Hitchens and other writers who championed their disavowal of God, leading you to think that the New Atheism is drowning out faith in this country.
Each of those trends is, indeed, real. I, for one, have written quite a bit about the growth of religion across Asia, Latin America, and Africa. The spread of Christianity and Islam in those parts of the globe is influencing religious and political debates worldwide. Just look at the schism in the Anglican Communion, between churches in the northern and southern hemispheres, over issues such as the ordination of gay clergy. Or consider the challenge that militant Islam presents in places like Nigeria. But in God Is Alive and Well, Frank Newport presents page after page of data demonstrating how religion is thriving in the United States. Religious belief is taking on new shapes, mind you; but that morphing is a good thing. It keeps religious expression growing and vital.
The data presented by Newport, who is Gallup’s editor in chief, start off showing that the percentage of Americans who say they believe in God is on par with the percentage who said they were believers back in 1944. When Gallup asked Americans in 2011 whether they believed in God, more than 90 percent said yes. Over those 67 years, the percentage of Americans who say they do not believe in God has bounced around between only 6 and 8 percent. In other words, there has been no real change.
Newport also presents data showing that the percentage of Americans saying they attend church is about the same as in 1940. About 40 percent report attending religious services at least once a week or almost weekly. About 15 percent say they never attend church. “Overall, this is fairly indicative of a religious nation,” writes Newport, who was raised a Southern Baptist and is a Baylor graduate. He also highlights how the percentage of Americans who say that religion is very important to them remains at 55 percent. That number is not lower than it was 30 years ago: “There is no indication that there has been a continuous drop in the personal aspect of religion in recent years,” he concludes.
What is changing is how we believe. That is the fascinating part of the religious trends working their way across America. And they are worth observing, not only for their effect in the pew but also for their influence on the larger culture.
The first trend does not bode well for people like me, white, mainline Protestants. I am a Presbyterian, and people in my denomination as well as in the Episcopal, Methodist, and even Baptist churches continue losing market share. This is not a new trend, but its continuance suggests that the decline in influence that mainline Protestants have experienced since their heyday in the middle of the last century will continue. The likelihood of a mainline Protestant thinker such as Reinhold Niebuhr popping up and influencing the culture, particularly the political culture, is not so great. And as Newport explains, mainliners are not producing enough babies. Nor are they broadening their base through evangelism or absorbing waves of immigrants. These factors suggest their percentage decline will not reverse itself.
I have mixed feelings about this reality. Newspapers have lost market share over time, for example, but they serve both a function and a segment of the American marketplace. Perhaps mainliners should focus on their function, which is largely to express the depth of God’s love and how it applies to this world, minister to their segment of America, and worry less about their loss of the overall religious marketplace.
But the numbers are what they are, and growth is clearly coming in other ways. The most fascinating change is the one that’s accompanying large birthrates among Latinos. Newport reports that those growth rates are keeping Roman Catholicism growing in America. (The percentage of white Catholics is declining, but not of Latino Catholics.) Even more important is the role of Latino evangelicals. They are one of the fastest-growing parts of evangelicalism, and their churches are common in places like Dallas, where I live and where you see neighborhood churches with signs proclaiming names like Iglesia del Señor.