Eric Liu's Escape from Bananadom
Aug 10, 1998, Vol. 3, No. 46 • By RAMESH PONNURU
Anyone who doubts that the ideal of assimilation is under siege should look at the reception of The Accidental Asian, Eric Liu's new meditation on identity. What criticism Liu has received thus far has been for his defense of assimilation -- which is proof of how far we've fallen, for Liu's defense is so diffident that it proves in fact no defense at all. Indeed, he disavows the label: "I am an assimilist in recovery: once in denial, now halfway up the twelve-step to full, self-actualized Asian Americanness."
What sets Liu's book apart from other multicultural memoirs is that it is, for the most part, refreshingly free of cant. He is too graceful a writer for that, especially in his reflections about his own family: "When your father, who was Chinese, has died, Chineseness seems an irrelevance: an inert container, just one among many, for holding the memories of shared experience."
Liu knows that Asian-Americans cannot reasonably nurse historical grievances comparable to those of American blacks, and he knows that a hyphenated identity supposedly uniting people as different as Koreans and Pakistanis gathers under one racial umbrella immigrants with no common history, religion, or language. He knows, in short, that "the Asian-American identity" is "contrived" and "synthetic," and that it may dissolve through intermarriage within a generation.
So what then is this identity he seeks? It is a sensibility that sees "everyday spaces and objects -- sporting events, television shows, workplaces, bookstores, boutiques -- through the eyes of a well-educated, socially conscious, politically aware, media-savvy, left-of-center, twenty-to-thirty-something, second-generation Asian-American." Above all, it is an identity preoccupied by identity.
Liu, who is twenty-nine, recalls that in high school and college he was a "Banana" -- yellow outside, white within (a knock-off of the derogatory description of assimilationist blacks as "Oreos"). He was no "math and science geek," and he didn't join ethnic clubs or go out of his way to make Asian-American friends. He claims to see in retrospect that a slavish defiance of stereotype is not much different from a slavish acceptance, and he wants now to "detoxify" his old mentality, "to prevent its further spread."
Of course, an Asian-American might refuse to affiliate with other Asian-Americans for reasons that have nothing to do with an "allergic sensitivity to 'pigeonholing.'" For Liu, however, race is always an issue. Did he worry about fitting in as a teenager because he was Chinese-American, or merely because he was a teenager? Did he have trouble getting dates because of his race, or because he was "oblivious to the subterranean levels of courtship"? Overthinking race in this manner -- like overthinking adolescence -- can only be psychologically enervating.
But the aim of forging an Asian-American identity is at last political -- the identity of the self "rooted deeply in threat" to the group. The dangers of this are familiar: It may become necessary to seek out threats, however minor or imaginary, to shore up this identity; and political dissenters must be branded race traitors. Judicious though he tries to be, Liu does not avoid these pitfalls.
The paranoia implicit in this kind of political identity comes out in Liu's obsession with the Asian campaign-money scandal. He spends a few pages describing his anger over a National Review cover depicting the president, vice president, and first lady in stereotypically Asian guises. The cover offended many Asian-Americans, despite the fact that it was an attack on the Democrats rather than Asian-Americans -- though one purpose of such identity-mongering as Liu's is to blur the distinction and force all Asians to vote Democratic. Liu describes a television debate with an unnamed opponent -- me, in point of fact -- identified only as a "South Asian" and (my favorite) "a villain" who reveals his "smarmy hypocrisy" while "mouthing his disingenuous party line."
Still, I get off easy. Columnist William Safire is declared "a ring-leader of the conspiracy theorists": "Early on, Safire fueled fears of Chinese and Chinese American treachery with snarling references to 'favor-hungry foreigners,' 'rich aliens,' 'insidious networking,' and 'penetration by Asian interests' -- just the sort of code and innuendo you'd expect from, say, The Protocols of the Elders of Zion." And then there's this astonishing claim: "In the period since the scandal broke, anti-Asian hate crimes have increased dramatically." Liu provides no evidence, and official FBI statistics aren't yet available.