Organized ignorance endangers health.
Apr 11, 2011, Vol. 16, No. 29 • By TEVI TROY
Brendan Hoffman / Getty Images
How the Anti-Vaccine Movement Threatens Us All
by Paul A. Offit
Basic Books, 288 pp., $27.50
How the Internet Is Being Used to Hijack Medical Science for Fear and Profit
by Robert Goldberg
Kaplan, 336 pp., $25.99
Over the last few months, we have seen the final and decisive disavowal of the work of Andrew Wakefield. Sadly, the damage this man has done is almost incalculable.
More than a decade ago, Wakefield set off a frenzy of fear when he presented “data” in the British medical journal Lancet that cast doubt on the safety of vaccines. Lancet eventually retracted the article, and only recently it was revealed that Wakefield may have had financial incentives to publish his spurious findings. Unfortunately, uninformed citizens, sensationalistic journalists, and opportunistic celebrities continue the momentum of his discredited work—endangering individual lives and our public health. As vaccine advocate and expert Paul Offit has said, “You can’t unring the bell.”
Nevertheless, that is exactly what Offit tries to do in Deadly Choices. Because of the deleterious impact of Wakefield and others like him, this book is a much-needed inoculation to help prevent future public scares. Offit reviews the history of vaccines, their importance, and the various attempts to discredit them over the past few centuries.
According to Offit, Wakefield is not the first anti-vaccine advocate to be thoroughly repudiated. Offit reminds readers of the controversy surrounding the pertussis vaccine, which some charged was a cause of mental retardation. This theory was thoroughly disproven by Samuel Berkovic in 2006, who demonstrated that a very specific genetic mutation caused the retardation in the studied cohort. Nevertheless, as Offit notes, the attack on the pertussis vaccine was a preview of the rules for anti-vaccine radicals—and the aftermath of damage: Despite the Berkovic study, he notes, “Not a single newspaper, magazine, or radio or television program carried the story.”
Offit also tells the tale of the creepy and iconic doll Raggedy Ann, which was created by cartoonist Johnny Gruelle after his daughter Marcella died following a smallpox vaccine. According to Offit, Raggedy Ann’s floppy arms and legs were supposed to signify a child harmed by a vaccination, despite the fact that “the medical report stated that the child had died from a heart defect.”
As these stories show, Offit is clearly frustrated by the superior ability of the anti-vaccine forces to deliver their misleading message with horrifying images or rhetoric. Offit has particular disdain for celebrities like Jenny McCarthy who misuse their fame (such as it is) to frighten parents into not getting their children vaccinated—which is dangerous not only for the children, but for their classmates, friends, and neighbors as well. Particularly irresponsible is
One thing Offit does not do here is describe the degree to which he has been pilloried and threatened by the anti-vaccine movement for his efforts to show that vaccines are not only safe, but also lifesaving. Enter author and medical expert Robert Goldberg, who tells another vital part of the story in his Tabloid Medicine. According to Goldberg—full disclosure: I know Goldberg socially, but have never met Offit—Offit has been characterized as a “devil,” a “prostitute,” and a “terrorist” for his efforts and has been repeatedly sued. He has also been forced to hire security for his own protection. Yet Offit remains undeterred in his attempt to promote the use of vaccines as a public health measure. As Goldberg notes,
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